Homeowners should closely scrutinize warranties for roofing workmanship and materials, as these often provide less coverage than they appear to, particularly with prorated warranties that diminish in value over time. Most warranties do not cover costs fully, especially after 10 years when problems are more likely, and typically exclude damage from natural disasters. For more comprehensive coverage, extended warranties are available, but at an extra cost, and it's crucial to understand the specifics of a warranty, including its duration and coverage details, to avoid unforeseen expenses and ensure long-term peace of mind.

Residential and commercial roofing systems differ primarily in materials and design due to their slope. Residential roofs usually have a steep slope, with a standard installation process featuring an underlayment, primary roofing material like shingles, and accessories that allow water to shed quickly. In contrast, commercial roofs are often low sloped, designed to handle temporary standing water, with materials like TPO or PVC that are sealed to prevent water intrusion. Despite these differences, the basic installation process involving underlayments, flashings, and roof surface material is similar for both types of roofs, with specific materials and techniques chosen based on the roof's pitch and building requirements.

Choosing a roofing material involves considering more than just aesthetics; factors like local weather conditions, long-term costs, and practical implications are key. In areas prone to high winds, such as Florida, homeowners may favor the durability and wind resistance of metal roofing, despite its higher initial costs and installation complexities compared to traditional asphalt shingles. However, the potential lack of extended insurance coverage for metal roofs and the greater expense for repairs should be weighed against the advancements in shingle technology, which now provide a more cost-effective and durable option for places with harsh climates.

Roof flashing is an essential yet often overlooked aspect of roofing, serving as the protective metal at the roof's vulnerable points such as edges, valleys, and around openings like vents and skylights. While the main area of a roof is safeguarded by shingles, the transitional zones where the roof intersects with other surfaces are susceptible to water intrusion without proper flashing. Installation must be precise, as most roof leaks are due to flashing problems, highlighting the importance of tailored flashing for maintaining a roof's overall integrity and preventing water damage.

Homeowners with flat roofs need to be aware of their specific membrane type, such as TPO or modified bitumen, as each requires different maintenance to prevent damage. In warmer climates, like Florida, keep an eye on modified bitumen for mildew discoloration, granule loss, and 'fish mouthing' which all indicate potential issues. For TPO and similar single-ply roofs, be vigilant about punctures, remove debris to avoid pooling water, and regularly check seams. Regular maintenance, including debris removal and seam treatment, is crucial to extend the life of a flat roof and prevent leaks.

Proper attic ventilation is crucial for home health and energy efficiency, with recommended vent ratios of 1 square foot per 300 square feet of attic space, and even 1 to 150 in certain climates; consulting shingle manufacturers for regional specifications is advised. Different regions favor different ventilation methods: gable vents are prevalent in the north due to less concern for wind-driven rain, while in the south, off-ridge vents, solar attic fans, power turbine vents, and ridge vents that use the Venturi effect are more common. Maintaining a cooler attic and efficient airflow requires keeping vent pathways clear, balancing air entry through soffit or gable vents, and ensuring exit through ridge or turbine vents, with regular checks to prevent blockages by insulation or other obstructions.